Съдържание Ориентировъчна продължителност
1 The Modal verb Can 60 мин
2 Ordinal numbers 30 мин
3 Was/Were Минало време на СЪМ 60 мин
4 Could 20 мин
5 Would 20 мин
Брой нови думи 100
Брой аудио файлове 50

Нашите уроци имат определена последователност, която обаче не е задължителна. Вие имате избор да решите какво да учите и колко време да отделите. Времената, които сме посочили са ориентировъчни.

1.The Modal verb Can

Модалните глаголи се използват, когато трябва да се придаде допълнително значение на основния глагол. Глаголът can означава мога и има няколко употреби.
1.1 Способност
Can изразява способност , а отрицателната му форма can’t – неспособност. В положителните и отрицателните изречения словоредът е сходен с този в българския език . Преводът на „ Can “ e мога , а на “Can’t “ – не мога. Глаголите в . за сегашно просто време, когато се употебяват с модален глагол нямат окончание -s.Can се произнася [kæn], а can’t се произнася [kɑːnt]

I can
You can
He can
We can
They can
I can’t
You can’t
He can’t
She can’t
It can’t
We can’t
They can’t


Angela can swim Анжела може да плува
Miglena can’t speak German Миглена не може да говори немски
I can’t go to the party . I am too tired Не мога да отида на партито. Уморен съм
They can’t use a computer . Те не могат да използват компютър
Sarah can speak English very well. Сара може да говори английски много добре.
Jack can use a laptop. Джак може да използва лаптоп.
Maria can paint Мария може да рисува
He can’t buy the car. Той не може да купи колата

1.1.1 При въпросителните изречения използваме инверсия. Обръщаме местата на вършителя и модалния глагол „ can “.
Maria can dance. Can Maria dance?
Can you play football ?
-Yes ,I can
Can you cook ?
No ,I can`t
В кратките отговори се използват местоимения за вършители .Can Peter run fast ?Yes, he can. Не можем да използваме името „ Peter “ в краткия отговор Yes,Peter can

Дългите отговори са :

Yes,I can play football

Yes,I can cook

-No,I can`t cook

.

Dialogue
What can you do, Polly ?
I can do many things. I can cook really well , I can sing, I can run very well…
Can you dance ?
Yes , I can. But I am not very good at dancing. Can you dance ?
No ,I can’t dance at all .
Can you play tennis ?
No, I can’t .
Can you run fast ?
No ,I can’t .I can run ,but not fast .
Can your sister run ?
Yes, she can

1.2 Позволение , забрана
Good morning mum .
Good morning , Jim.
Mum, can I go to Ben`s party ?
No,not a chance .You are grounded ,remember ?
But mum…
You can`t go ! Period.

1.3 Искане на позволение , отправяне на предложения
Hello ,Miss
Hi .
Can I ask you a question ?
Yes ,sure .
Can I have your number ?
Yes , why not . 055214778
Ok, cool . Can I take you out for dinner on Friday ?
Oh, I am sorry. I have a boyfriend.

1.4 Примери за употреби на “can “
1.Can I go to the party ? Мога ли да отида на партито ?
2.Can I help you ? Мога ли да ви помогна ?
3.Can you speak more slowly ,please ? Може ли да говориш по –бавно?
4.Can I have your number ? Може ли да ми дадете номера си ?
5.Can I have a cold drink ,please ? Мога ли да получа студена напитка ,моля ?
6.Can you tell me the time ? Може ли да ми кажете колко е часът ?

Можем да използваме „ can “при предложения( 2) ,молби ( 3, 4,5,6) , искане и даване на позволение ( 1)

1.5 Dialogue
Poly wants to work as a waitress. Now she is at an interview .
– Hello, my name is Poly .Nice to meet you
– Hello ,Poly. I am John. Have a seat .
– Thank you. Can I offer you some water or tea ?
– No, thanks.
– All right. Now, tell me. Do you have experience as a waitress ?
-No , I don’t .But I can learn fast .
– Can you work with a cash point ?
– Yes, I can. I have experience as a cashier. I can work really fast .
– That’s good. Can you work well in a team?
– Yes, I can. I am an excellent team player.
– OK, Can you take evening shifts on Saturday and Sunday?
– No, I can’t. I have lectures at the weekends. I can come from Monday to Friday. Is that a problem?
– No, don’t worry. We can fix it .
– When can you start?
– Am I hired ? Well… I can start tomorrow
– Perfect. Bring your documents as soon as you can. Thank you!
– I thank you. See you in the afternoon.

In the dialogue there are 3 usages of “can “. В диалога има 3 употреби на can
1. Ability ( способност )
“ Can you work with a cash point “ :Можеш ли да работиш с каса ?
2. Request ( запитване )
„Can I offer you water or tea ? “ : Мога ли да ви предложа вода или чай ?
3. Възможност
“When can you start ? “ Кога можеш да започнеш ? ( Кога имаш възможност да започнеш?

Have a seat Седнете excellent отличен
All right Добре shift Смяна
waitress сервитьорка cashier касиер
experience Опит lecture Лекция
don’t worry Не се притеснявай fix нагласим
To be hired Да бъдат нает на работа bring Нося,донасям
To hire Наемам на работа hired нает

 

2. Ordinal numbers Числителни редни

Първите три числителни редни са по-специфични ,тъй като не произхождат от цифрите „ one ,two ,three „ Останалите обаче са по-лесни за запомняне .Поставяме цифрата/числото и прибавяме окончание “th “
Six + th – sixth thirteen + th – thirteenth
Four + th –fourth fifteen + th – fifteenth
При някои има промяна при някои букви от основата. Както при: fifth ,eighth, ninth

First първи Twelfth 12-ти Twenty-fourth 24-ти
Second втори Thirteenth 13-ти Twenty-fifth 25-ти
Third трети Fourteenth 14-ти Twenty-sixth 26-ти
Fourth четвърти Fifteenth 15-ти Twenty-seventh 27-ми
Fifth пети Sixteenth 16-ти Twenty-eighth 28-ми
Sixth шести Seventeenth 17-ти Twenty-ninth 29-ти
Seventh седми Eighteenth 18-ти thirtieth 30-ти
Eighth осми Nineteenth 19-ти fortieth 40-ти
Ninth девети Twentieth 20-ти fiftieth 50-ти
Tenth десети Twenty-first 21-ви eightieth 80-ти
Eleventh единадесети Twenty-second 22-ри Ninetieth 90-ти
zeroth нулев Twenty –third 23-ти hundredth стотен

The first day of the week is Monday
The second day is Tuesday
The third day is Wednesday
The fourth day is Thursday
The fifth day of the week is Friday
The sixth day is Saturday
The seventh day is Sunday

I was born on the tenth of August, 1999
При съобщаване на дата , се изпoлзват следните елементи : ON + THE + числително редно + OF
На трети февруари : On the third of February .
На български може да се превежда наум по следния начин : „ На третия ден от февруари „ ,за да се запомнят елементите .
Дали ще има „ On “ отпред или не, зависи от това дали при превода на български ще има „на“ .
I was born on the twenty –second of May – Роден съм на двадесет и втори май .
Тоday is the fifth of December . – Днес е пети декември
I was born on the twenty-fifth of October – Роден съм на двадесет и пети октомври
We were born in December
Ben and Arthur were born on the sixth of January ,2000

Въпроси :
Where were you born ? Къде си роден ?
Where was Tina born ? Къде е родена Тина ?
When were you born? Кога си роден?
When was Tina born? Кога е родена Тина?
On which date were you born? На коя дата си роден?
On which date was Tina born? На коя дата е родена Тина?

In which month were you born? През кой месец си роден?
In which month was he born? През кой месец е роден?
On which day were you born? На кой ден си роден?
On which day was your father born? На кой ден е роден баща ти?
During which week were they invited? През коя седмица бяха поканени?
In which week was she in Athens? През коя седмица тя беше в Атина?
In which year were you a student? През коя година си бил студент?
In which year was he born? През коя година е роден?
Предлогът in се използва с месеци, седмици, години. Предлогът on с ден и дата.

3. Глаголът СЪМ Минало време WAS /WERE

Формите WAS / WERE са миналите форми на глагола BE ( СЪМ).
Am –was бях
Is – was беше
Are—were. беше, бяхме, бяхте, бяха
I was at school yesterday . – Бях на училище вчера.
She was beautiful at the party . Тя беше прекрасна на партито.
Tom was in the club with Tina. –Том беше в клуба с Тина.
I was sick yesterday . Бях болен вчера .
They were at home last weekend . – Те бяха вкъщи миналия уикенд.
We were happy in that house. Ние бяхме щастливи в къщата.

I was I was at school when I was 6 was not ( wasn’t ) I wasn’t sick yesterday
She was She was  in Varna last summer was not ( wasn’t ) She wasn’t in Sofia
He was He was with his son on Monday was not ( wasn’t ) He wasn’t at home on Sunday
You were You were tired after the match were not ( weren’t ) You weren`t OK
We were We were rich in 1999 were not ( weren’t ) We weren`t poor
They were in France last weekend were not ( weren’t ) They weren`t in Brazil

You were at work on that date . Вие бяхте на работа на тази дата.
I was born in Sofia : Роден съм в София. Това изречение се превежда със сегашно време на български , въпреки че „ was “означава „ бях „.
Отрицание
I wasn’t well this morning – Не бях добре днес сутринта.
Peter wasn’t in Varna last summer- Питър не беше във Варна миналото лято.
Petya wasn’t at school today. – Петя не беше на училище днес.
The dog wasn’t born in 2012 Кучето не е родено през 2012.
Sam and Penny weren’t my friends last year . Сам и Пени не бяха мои приятели миналата година.
We weren’t together 4 months ago .-Те не бяха заедно преди 4 месеца.

Wasn’t и weren’t са съкратените на was not и were not.
Въпроси
-Was Tina your girlfriend in 2015?
-No, she wasn’t . We were just friends.
-Were you all right after the disco ?
-Yes, I was .
-Was Gream at school on Monday ?
-No, he wasn’t . He was sick.
-Were they happy together ?
-No, they weren’t .
При въпросителните изречения ,прилагаме принципа на инверсията – обръщаме местата на вършителя и глагола „съм „.За кратки отговори се използват личните местоимения на вършителите и глагола „ съм „ ( was, wasn’t / were ,weren’t ).
NB : Ако във въпросa вършителят е различна дума от лично местоимение ( Tom , my friend , the students , etc. ) ,то в краткия отговор ще ги заместим със съответните им лични местоимения .
Were your friends at the party ? – Yes ,they were.
-Were you at the party last night ?
-Yes,I was .It was great .What about you ? Were you there ? No ,I couldn’t make it .I was very busy .
-That`s nice .Was Melanie there ?
-Yes ,she was.But she couldn’t dance because her leg was hurt
Когато въпросът изисква въпросителна дума или въпросителен израз ,те стоят на първа позиция .
Where were you last night ? – Къде беше снощи?
When was she there ? – Кога тя беше там ?
Why were you in Pleven ? – Защо беше в Плевен ?

Was I   Was  I in Sofia last Monday?     Yes, I was/ No I wasn’t
Was she Was she happy with him ?   Yes she was /No she wasn’t
Was he    Was he with him ?      Yes, he was / No he wasn’t
Was it  Was the movie good ?      Yes, it was /  No it wasn’t
Were you  Were you at the party last night ?   Yes, I was / No I wasn’t
Were we    Were we friends when we were 10 ? Yes, we were / No we weren’t
Were they   Were they sad yesterday evening ?   Yes ,they were /No they weren’t
    Now When I was 6 years old
 I can speak 4 languages                I couldn’t  speak  4 languages.I could speak only one
My father can`t run .He can only walk      He could run very fast
My friends are 15                    My friends were 2.
 My mother is  57                    My mother was 31.
She isn’t  married now                  She wasn’t  married .She was single
My friends Ben and Sam are in LA they weren’t  in LA.They were in London

 

4.Could

Could I walk when I was 2               Yes  I could / No  I couldn’t
Could you speak when you were 3 ?        Yes,I could / No I couldn’t
Could she  drive  4 years ago ?          Yes,she could / No  she couldn’t
Could he play the guitar last year  ?        Yes,he could / Nohe couldn’t
Could it run yesterday evening ?          Yes it could /No it couldn’t
Could we swim  when we were 4 ?         Yes,we could / No we couldn’t
Could you speak English last summer ?     Yes,we could / No we couldn`t
Could they use a computer 7 years ago ?    Yes, they could / No they couldn’t

Polite requests Could / Can you … Could / Can I …
Can you give me your phone number ? Можете ли да ми дадете номера си ?
Could you give me your phone number ? Бихте ли могъл да ми дадете номера си?
The difference between these sentences is that the second sentence is more polite.
Can you pass me the salt ,please ? Можете ли да ми подадете солта ,моля ?
Could I ask you a question ? Мога ли да ви задам въпрос ?
In the first sentence the speaker wants the other person to do something ( „ вие да ми подадете солта „ ) .In the second sentence the speaker wants to do something ( “аз да задам въпроса „ )

5 Would like

Would like е учтива форма, която означава Бих желал . Разликата между „would like“ и “want “ е в това до колко учтиво желаем да звучим. Формата на „would like“ остава същата при всички вършители ( I , you , he, she, it, we, they ). Не се прибавя „ s “ за трето лице ед. ч. ( he would like ,she would like , it would like ). Would [wʊd] има кратка форма- I’d, you’d, they’d, he’d Не е прието на въпрос с „ Would like “ да се отговаря с Yes, I would или No ,I wouldn’t.

I would
I’d
You would
You’d
He would
He’d
She would
She’d
It would
It’d
We would
We’d
They would
They’d

Опции за отговори са :
Положителни : Yes, I would love to. / Да ,с удоволствие /
Yes, please /Да, моля /
Yes, I ‘d like to / Да , с удоволствие /
Отрицателни : No ,thanks / Не ,благодаря /
No ,I am on a diet.
Последното е оправдание ,че не искаме да консумираме предложеното ни нещо .Вариантът за оправдание при отрицателен отговор е най –подходящ .
Would you like water ?
No ,thanks. and Yes , please.
“Want “от друга страна , се променя както всеки друг нормален пълнозначен глагол.
Do you want an apple ? I want an apple. – I don’t want an apple.
Does it want an orange? She doesn’t want an orange . – He doesn’t want an orange.